WATER QUALITY AS INDEX OF HEALTHY AQUATIC LIFE: A REVIEW
Industrial effluent and poor waste management among other anthropogenic activities affect water quality. Incessant discharge of untreated effluent and sewage, metal and microplastic scraps dumping and processing, local dyeing and tanning, atmospheric deposit, and excessive use of agrochemicals continue to contaminate the surrounding environment with toxic heavy metals. These toxicants persist in aquatic environments and cause harmful effects on non-target organisms including fish. Water Pollution matters due to its effect on the environment on which we depend. Destroying the environment ultimately reduces the quality of our own lives. Portable water is a vital commodity for human life and survival. We must consume it to stay alive and use it to clean our food, utensils, clothes, bodies, and surroundings to prevent disease. Unfortunately, this same water is responsible for several diseases, especially in developing countries. The article reviewed relevant literature and provided an overview of these contaminants' effect on aquatic biota. Bio-indicators of heavy metals toxicity that induce alterations in fish physiology were discussed; these include haematology, antioxidant enzyme activities, histology, and growth performance. Violation of environmental regulations and failure of environmental regulatory agencies to abate environmental protection laws exacerbate the situation.